The millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency band spanning from 30 to 300 GHz constitutes a substantial portion of the unused frequency spectrum, which is an important resource for future wireless communication systems in order to fulfill the escalating capacity demand. Given the improvements in integrated components and enhanced power efficiency at high frequencies, wireless systems can operate in the mmWave frequency band. In this paper, we present a survey of the mmWave propagation characteristics, channel modeling, and design guidelines, such as system and antenna design considerations for mmWave, including the link budget of the network, which are essential for mmWave communication systems. We commence by introducing the main channel propagation characteristics of mmWaves followed by channel modeling and design guidelines. Then, we report on the main measurement and modeling campaigns conducted in order to understand the mmWave band's properties and present the associated channel models. We survey the different channel models focusing on the channel models available for the 28, 38, 60, and 73 GHz frequency bands. Finally, we present the mmWave channel model and its challenges in the context of mmWave communication systems design.